在北京,一个孩子上学有多难

上周在Google的新闻推送中读到了Bloomberg推送的一篇报道,是讲述北京小孩入学的难度大问题,觉得很有代表性,特地发上来供大家阅读。

在北上广深这种大城市里,想要把自己的孩子送入重点中学就读,谈何容易,文章的开头是以父母为了孩子如何上重点学校而一起交流心得这样一个背景,三言两语就勾勒出了一副心酸的画面。城市的教育资源与常住人口永远是无法匹配的,这种资源的稀缺导致各个阶层的父母们不惜一切代价为自己的孩子争取一张入校的资格证,而这个各个阶层,实际上是指中产或者以上的阶层,中产以下的父母阶层,一来没有这个资格,二来,没有这个财力。

文中提到了北京的学区房的事情,这也是中国特色中算是奇葩的一个现象,北京城区一个破旧的11平米的学区房,买到了530万,折算成房价是46万一平,这样的价格,是大部分老百姓想都不敢想的问题,而且买这46万一平的学区房还要满足条件,在北京缴纳社保、个人所得税5年以上,或者拥有北京市工作居住证,才有资格购房。这些硬性条件,再加上一些细小的条条框框,让生活在北京的父母们,尤其是年轻的父母们,几乎是与重点小学无缘,或者,他们的小孩,在北京是没有资格上学的。

说到重点中学,其中讲的一个概念,对于土生土长的中国人来说,我还是第一次了解到,文中说到重点中学最初设立的初衷,是毛主席时代,为了培养共产党高官权贵的后代设立的小学,作为我国的执政党,为共产党服务的学校,当然是顶尖的,也就意味着这些学校拥有最好的老师,最好的设施,以及最好的教育资源。我想这也是导致今日“重点中学”热的原因之一吧。

文中还提到了在北京小孩入学的难度超过纽约和伦敦,但是纽约和伦敦作为西方资本主义国家当中的代表城市,是典型的发达城市之中的国际化大都市,而相比之下的北京,我不得不说咱们的北京目前只是面子工程做的很好,政府也依旧在不断的增加面子的筹码以提高北京在国际当中的知名度,打造国际化的名片,然而对于生活在这个城市里的公民,或者居民,或者北漂,再或者异乡人,他们都得到了什么样的市政便利呢,少之又少。所以我觉得把北京和伦敦纽约放在一起比较,乍一看感觉挺像那么回事的,实际上,他们之间没有可比性,根本不在一个level上面。

说到学区房,就不得不说到中国的父母,中国的父母是最可怜的一个群体,因为很多时候,国家的政策往往不是建立在为人民服务的宗旨上,而且频繁多变,体制上就存在大问题,这种摧残已经持续了那么多年,试问还要持续多少年?父母为了小孩上学,砸锅卖铁,大房子换小房子,走关系甚至走后门行贿送礼,为了一个名额可谓是任何牺牲都可以付出,这种现象看似歌颂父爱母爱的伟大,歌颂望子成龙的心切,但是其实这种现象也是一种病态的现象,造成这种现象的,不止是父母的殷切期望,更有现有政策的不合理,教育体制的不均衡。也许是因为中国是个人口大国,过多的人口导致教育资源的失衡,但是我们是人口大国已经是很多很多年就已经不争的事实,但是这么多年,我们的教育现状依旧如此,就值得我们深刻反思了。

写这些文字,不是为了批评政府抱怨政策,而是作为一个旁观者,将来的参与者,从我的角度去分子看待这个问题。不包含任何攻击,诽谤等色彩,观点会很局限,仅供各位阅读者参考

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Try Getting Your Kid Into a Beijing Public School

The competition is cutthroat and the authorities are always tweaking the rules.

On an afternoon in late May, two Beijing parents, each with a 6-year-old son, are plotting out strategies at an upscale teahouse in the Chinese capital. Ding Zhe, 37, works as a manager at a state-owned machine tool and pharmaceutical conglomerate; Tina Qi, 41, is an auditor at Deloitte. The two are trading tips on a stressful rite for China’s new elite: getting one’s kids into one of the country’s ultracompetitive public primary schools.

Ding and Qi each assembled documents for the initial online application, including copies of their sons’ birth certificates (a child must be at least 6 on Sept. 1 to enter first grade), the family household residency permit, and crucially, a certificate of title showing they own an apartment in their desired school districts. They’re closely monitoring popular educational websites such as Beijing Children Rise to Primary for news of any last-minute changes in enrollment policy. And they have exchanged WeChat articles with advice on how to prepare for the dreaded family interview—which is an often unannounced home visit by teachers or education officials. That, and a separate on-campus interview for wannabe students, will occur just before decisions are made in late June.

“The competition is intense,” says Ding, who moved to Beijing from southwestern China in 2000 for university and stayed for work. “Our resources are limited, and the population is too large,” frets Qi, who got her master’s at the University of Southampton in the U.K. before returning to Beijing, her hometown.

In many ways their experience mirrors those of parents in New York, Washington, and London. But it’s a uniquely Chinese ordeal because of the scale: A hundred million or so children are enrolled in elementary school, with 17 million entering each year. (Primary education runs for six years, followed by three years each of middle and high school.) China has 190,000 elementary schools, but the majority just won’t do for urbanites ambitious for their kids’ future.

Strivers such as Ding and Qi are focused on a small number that have achieved almost talismanic status and are often discussed in respectful tones. Of Beijing’s 984 elementary schools, only a couple of dozen fall into this category, including Zhong Guan Cun No. 3 Elementary School and Experimental Primary School of Beijing Normal University. Most were once zhongdian xuexiao, or key institutes—a designation that dates to the Mao era and refers to institutions tasked with educating the children of the Communist Party elite. These schools have traditionally drawn the lion’s share of financial resources as well as the best teachers.

They’re the equivalent of “feeder” schools in the U.S.; administrators and parents keep close track of how many of their graduates eventually make it into top academies such as Tsinghua and Peking universities. In Beijing almost all the most sought-after schools are located in just three of the city’s 16 districts—Haidian, Xicheng, and Dongcheng—home to government ministries, universities, and research institutes. “The biggest challenge for education in our country is glaring inequality,” says Xiong Bingqi, vice president for the 21st Century Education Research Institute. “There are regional differences in quality, but this problem also exists within each city, and parents know which are good schools and which are not.”

Educational authorities several years ago ordered public schools to stop using academic proficiency tests in the admissions process. Meanwhile, President Xi Jinping’s antigraft campaign has diminished the appeal of backdoor channels, including bribery. That leaves only one main criterion for admission: location.

In Beijing, where parents must own property near competitive schools if they wish their children to attend (renting isn’t enough), demand for what are known as xuequfang, or “school district houses”—often small, overpriced, and sometimes rundown apartments in desirable districts—has surged. When her son was a toddler, Maggie Huang set her sights on the Fangcaodi Primary school in Chaoyang, a district that’s home to embassies and foreign company offices. So five years ago she and her physician husband sold their 100-square-meter apartment in another district and bought one about half as large and more expensive situated just across the street from Fangcaodi. “We sacrificed a lot to get a xuequfang,” says Huang. “We had to sell our bigger place and crowd into this small one.”

Some wealthy families are buying apartments next to desirable schools but not living in them. One couple spent 5.3 million yuan ($779,000) on a tiny 11-square-meter room near Beijing No. 2 Experimental Primary, considered one of the city’s best schools, making it “the most expensive school district house ever sold in China,” Xinhua News Agency reported in March of last year.

To clamp down on this practice, Beijing’s education officials instituted the home visit. “While some schools will call parents to inform them in advance, most instead suddenly attack, with no advance warning,” cautioned an online article published on March 14. “They will ask your child, ‘Do you really live here?’ They know children can’t tell lies,” says Ding with a laugh.

Rejection can be painfully impersonal. Mikko Lan, a vice president at Ogilvy Public Relations in Beijing, says that while his son was admitted in 2012 to the prestigious Hongmiao Primary, his daughter was turned down when she applied two years ago. “There is no discussion with parents, no email, no notification of any kind,” he says. “You just get online and find out.”

Authorities are trying to manage the cutthroat competition (as well as curb soaring property prices) through trial policies. At some select schools, new rules specify that an address may be listed on an application only once every six years; moreover, the family must have owned the property for at least three years. Other ideas being considered: merging good and bad schools and having parents apply to only a group of several schools rather than specify a top choice.

The Deloitte auditor, Qi, doesn’t expect the recent changes to affect her son’s prospects of getting into Shijia Hutong, a top school, but a colleague with a 3-year-old child, who, like her, bought a xuequfang, may not be as fortunate. People who’ve put their life savings into high-priced apartments could see their value suddenly depreciate if education commission officials sever their connection to a particular school. “We live in a world of never-ending policy change,” says Qi. “What direction they will take after a number of years is impossible to know.”

The bottom line: The competition to get into the right public schools is more intense in Beijing than in New York or London.

Bloomberg

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原文链接

 https://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2017-06-10/qatar-group-plans-to-pursue-damages-tied-to-saudi-led-blockade

 

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